
PD + A
(n = 22) 
PD – A
(n = 39) 
HC
(n=19) 
Statistic (ANOVA or ttest) 

Mean (SD) or n (%) 
F; p 
Demographic variables 
Age
(years) 
69.32
(6.32) 
66.16
(4.92) 
65.79
(5.55) 
F = 2.87;
p= .06 
Gender
(% male) 
17
(77.3) 
29
(74.4) 
9
(47.4) 
x^{2} = 5.36;
p=.07 
Level of formal education
(years) 
12.45
(2.30) 
13.00
(2.26) 
13.31
(2.33) 
F = 0.76;
p =.47 
Disease variables 
Levodopa equivalent daily dose 
812.92 (522.16) 
854.84 (621.21) 

t= 0.27;
p = .79 
Duration of PD motor symptoms (months) 
123.27 (82.49) 
89.24
(64.90) 

t = 1.65;
p=0.11 
Age of onset of motor symptoms (years) 
59.73
(10.41) 
58.43
(8.34) 

t = 0.53;
p = .60 
UPDRS* motor (Part III) 
37.68
(12.30) 
25.73
(10.00) 

t = 4.07;
P = .000 
UPDRS* complications
(Part IV) 
3.95
(3.58) 
3.27
(3.39) 

t= 0.74;
p = .47 
HoehnYahr stage 
2.68
(0.73) 
2.20
(0.79) 

t = 2.32;
p = .02 
Behavioural variables 
Apathy Evaluation ScaleClinician version 
47.27
(12.13) 
23.86
(7.69) 
22.95 (5.06) 
F = 58.74;
p< .001
(post hoc:
p< .001 for both PD+A vs PDA and PdA vs HC) 
Depression of any kind**, (%,DSM IV criteria) 
8
(37.3) 
28
(62.7) 

x^{2} =0.32;
p=.24 