Author/year No. of participants Significance
Camp et al
Mean age=90
Reduced disengagement: 71% (am) ->53% (pm) following the Montessori methods.
Decreased disengagement during the entire session: 35% ->25%.
Significance not reported.
N= 51,
Mean age =79
Improved quality of life using the Quality of Life-Alzheimer’s Disease (QoL-AD), but p-value not reported.
Reduced depression using the Chinese version of Geriatric Depression Scale (CGDS), but p-value not reported.
N= 8, Mean age = 85.7 (intervention),
N=7. Mean age = 81.4 (control)
Significantly reduced level of stress by Beck Anxiety Inventory,BAI (p=0.01).
No significant differences in cognitive functioning(Mini-MentalState Exam, MMSE), depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), a sense of purpose, and a sense of usefulness(single-itemquestionnaires).
George and Singer
N= 8,Mean age=85.7 (intervention),
N=7 with an average age = 81.4 (control)
Significantly decreased level of stress (p=0.007).
No significant declines in cognitive functioning, sense of purpose, depression, and a sense of usefulness.
George et al.
N= 8, Mean age = 85.7 (intervention),
N=7. Mean age = 81.4 (control)
Significantly reduced level of stress (p=0.01).
No significant differences in psych-social outcomes such as a sense of purpose, and a sense of usefulness.
Judge et al.
N=9 (intervention),
N=10 (control),
Mean age=81 
Significantly more constructive engagement (p < 0.004), but no difference in passive engagement.
Lee et al.
N=14, Mean age =90.29 More constructive engagement styles using the Myers Research Institute Engagement Scale (p<0.001).
More active engagement (p<0.006).
O'Shea et al.
N=153 (intervention), N=151 (control),
Mean age= 85.2
No statistically significant change in depressionusing the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia
No significant difference in self-reported Quality of Life-Alzheimer’s Disease (QoL-AD).
Ward et al.
Mean age=85
Lower levels of agitation but not significant.
More frequent touching observed in the presence of children (p<0.01)
Less frequent head nodding (p<0.05)
Yamagami et al.
N=18 , Mean age=82.2 Significant improvements in immediate recall (p=0.01) and delayed recall (p=0.022) using the Wechsler Memory Scale.
Non-significant change in caregiver burden by the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview.
Non-significant changes in disoriented and withdrawn behaviours.
Table 2: Summary of the results.
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