Figure 3: Down-regulation of acethycholines (Ach) and up-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are not the secondary phenomena from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology (×) but are involved in AD pathology (○). Therefore, up-regulation of Ach and down-regulation of NMDA receptors, e.g. antidementia agents, are not only symptomatic treatment but also disease modifying treatment. When the up-regulation of NMDA receptors is occurred, serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) appears.
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