Mangrove species Features Occurrence Ethnomedicinal uses
  X. garanatum Plant: Small to medium-sized, glabrous, evergreen tree
Leaf:  Paripinnate, the leaves
have 1 or 2 pairs of leaflets. The leaflets are characteristically obovate with a rounded apex. The lamina is gradually tapering towards the thick, distinct petiolule. The lamina is coriaceous with a shining surface.
Bark: Trunk surface is pale, smooth with its thin  bark peeling in flakes or patches
Fruit: large, globose up to 20–30 cm across.
Flowers: Flowers small in axillary few-flowered cymose panicles, 4-7 cm long.
Root: Erect, conical knee roots are absent but the horizontal cable roots develop into ribbon-like plank roots
East Africa, South east asia, Australia
and Indian Costal region
Bark: cholera, fever, malaria, diarrhoea
Leaves: microbial, diarrhoea
Fruits: hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia,idiarrhoea
  X. moluccensis Plant:  Moderate-sized trees (5-20m in height) with well-developed  woody trunk
Leaf: Leaflets ovate 
Bark: Bark longitudinally fissured,
Fruit: Fruit elliptical (8-12cm in diameter) containing 5-10 seeds. 
Flowers: Flowers tiny white to pinkish in clusters on an inflorescence.
Root: small or no buttress roots, many peg-shaped, pneumatophores.  
Coastal region of
India,  Bangladesh,  Burma,  Ceylon  Malaya and Indonesia
Bark: fever, malaria, astringent, febrifuge, dysentery, diarrhoea.
Leaves: bacterial, cancer and inflammation
Fruits: aphrodisiac, cure
for elephantiasis and swelling of the breasts, bactericidal. hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia
  X. mekogenesis Plant: Tree 5-20m tall
Leaf:  Paripinnate, the leaves have 1, 2 or 3 pairs of leaflets. The leaflets are ovate or oblong with a pointed or blunt tip. The surface of the lamina is flat.
Bark: Trunk surface is rough, dark brown, fissured with the bark peeling in long thick narrow strips.
Fruit: subglobose up to 10 cm across, with 10–15 pyramidal seeds.
Flowers: The inflorescence 10 cm long. The flowers are creamy white with an attractive orange red disc
Root: Horizontal cable roots produce vertical, conical,  laterally  compressed knee roots or pneumatophores  which may grow up to 30 cm tall
Bengal, Burma, the Andaman’s, the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, Australia, Fiji
and Africa
Bark:  malaria, diarrhoea, antinociceptive activities, inflammation  and  oxidant
Fruits: elephantiasis, preventing swelling of the breast
Table 1: Botanical features, distribution and ethnomedicinal uses of Xylocarpus plants.
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