Figure 2: Phage impact on bacteria. “Phages” refers to intact phage particles whereas “Enzybiotics” are purified phage products. Treatment failure is associated with substantial bacterial survival (black outcomes with white text). Passive or inundative treatment occurs when sufficient phage numbers are provided that substantial bacterial losses are achieved without reliance on phage population growth (though phage population growth can still occur; darker gray outcomes with white text). Active treatment cannot substantially eradicate target bacterial populations unless sufficient phage population growth occurs in situ (indicated as a white outcome with black text). Phage infections in which bacteria die and no phage progeny are produced we define as abortive. Note that CRISPR systems do not necessarily result in bacterial survival in combination with phage death but rather can also give rise to abortive infections [68].
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