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Journal of Oceanography and Marine Research | ISSN: 2572-3103 | Volume 6

&

Marine Science, Coastal Dynamics and Management

6

th

International Conference on

Oceanography, Ocean Technology and Marine Biology

6

th

International Conference on

September 21-22, 2018 | Dallas, USA

Marine biodiversity in India with special reference to conservation, status, and issues

Sainudeen Sahib

SN College, India

I

ndia has a vast coastline of 8000 km, of which, 5,423 km belong to Peninsular India and 2,094 km to the Andaman, Nicobar, and

Lakshadweep Islands, and with an EEZ of 2.02 million

sq.km

. There are about 13,000 recorded marine species in India. Indian

coastal zones have a variety of habitats like Mangrove, estuarine, coral reefs, seagrass beds, lagoons, sand dunes, rocky shore, cliffs,

intertidal mudflats, etc. The coastline of India has also supported nearly 250 million people and the ecological services of marine and

coastal ecosystems of India play a vital role in India’s economic growth. The marine floral diversity includes 844 species of marine

alga (seaweeds) belonging to 217 genera, 14 species of seagrasses and 69 species of Mangroves. The marine faunal diversity includes

a wide variety of life forum. The Indian coastal water harbours 451 species of sponges, more than 200 species of corals, more than

2900 species of crustacean, 3370 species of marine molluscs, more than 200 species of bryozoans, 765 species of echinoderm, 47

species of tunicates, more than 1300 marine fishes, 26 species of sea snakes, 5 species of sea turtles and 30 species of marine mammals

including dugong, dolphins, whales etc. In addition, a wide variety of seabirds can be observed around the coast. There are ten

species of sharks and rays including whale shark, all species of seahorses, all cetaceans, dugong, nine species of shells, five species of

sea turtles, one species of otter, all species of corals, all species of sponges and all holothurians that occur in coastal and marine areas

of India are considered under threat, therefore, protected under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 by listing them in the Schedule.

Major anthropogenic direct drivers of ecosystem degradation and destruction include habitat conversion to other forms of land use,

overexploitation of species and associated destructive harvesting practices, the spread of invasive alien species, and the impacts of

pollution from agricultural, domestic and industrial effluents. In this paper, the major issues related to coastal and marine biodiversity

conservation and measures taken to address them have been highlighted.

[email protected]

J Oceanogr Mar Res 2018, Volume 6

DOI: 10.4172/2572-3103-C1-006