alexa A Review: Improper Antibiotic Utilization evokes the Dissemination of Resistances in Biotic Environments - A High Risk of Health Hazards | OMICS International
ISSN : 2153-2435

Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
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Review Article

A Review: Improper Antibiotic Utilization evokes the Dissemination of Resistances in Biotic Environments - A High Risk of Health Hazards

Reshma Anjum* and Niclas Krakat

Department of Bioengineering, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim e.V., Max-Eyth-Allee 100, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany

*Corresponding Author:
Reshma Anjum
Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim e.V.
Max-Eyth-Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam, Germany
Tel: +49 (0)331 5699 904
Fax: +49 (0)331 5699 849
E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]

Received date: October 14, 2015; Accepted date: December 24, 2015; Published date: December 28, 2015

Citation: Anjum R, Krakat N (2015) A Review: Improper Antibiotic Utilization evokes the Dissemination of Resistances in Biotic Environments - A High Risk of Health Hazards. Pharm Anal Acta 6:454. doi:10.4172/2153-2435.1000454

Copyright: © 2015 Anjum R et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Antibiotics are used irresponsibly at every opportunity to treat mild or even viral infections. Accordingly antibiotics have been used in massive amounts in agriculture as a preventive provision against bacterial diseases and to promote the growth of animal feedstock such as poultry, beef and pigs, respectively. Consequently many reports of the past decades contained numerous treatises on bacteria’s ability to become resistant to antibiotics what in turn is a growing issue in health care. For example a diverse set of clinical pathogens which includes multi-drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus and various Enterococci species are now nearly untreatable with standard antibiotics and pose a growing threat to patients in hospitals and the community at large. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are prevalent in environments resulting in enhanced health hazard risks. Moreover, conjugative transfers of ARGs help to disseminate multiple antibiotic resistant pathogens which pose a serious threat to humans if allowed to enter the food chain. Thus, better knowledge and more information on the fate of antibiotics as well as the development and spread of antibiotic resistance bacteria and genes in the environment are required to understand underlying processes. This review is an effort to emphasize how biotic environments become polluted initiated by several antibiotic applications via human beings.

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