Antibiogram of Bacterial Isolates from the Anterior Nares and Hands of Health Care Workers in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH) Uyo, AkwaIbom State, NigeriaEdem EN1*, Onwuezobe IA2, Ochang EA2, Etok CA1 and James IS1
- *Corresponding Author:
- Edem EN
Department of Microbiology
University of Uyo, P.M.B 1017, Uyo, Nigeria
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: April 22, 2013; Accepted date: June 12, 2013; Published date: June 17, 2013
Citation: Edem EN, Onwuezobe IA, Ochang EA, Etok CA, James IS (2013) Antibiogram of Bacterial Isolates from the Anterior Nares and Hands of Health Care Workers in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH) Uyo, AkwaIbom State, Nigeria. J Bacteriol Parasitol 4:168. doi: 10.4172/2155-9597.1000168
Copyright: © 2013 Edem EN, et la. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Hands and anterior nares of Health Care Workers may serve as sources for transmission of pathogens causing nosocomial infection. The importance of hands in the transmission of nosocomial infection is known worldwide. However, it is difficult to induce hand washing behavior in health-care workers.
This work is designed to ascertain the frequency of bacterial colonization and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates from the anterior nares and hands of healthcare workers in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH).
Sterile cotton wool swabs, which were pre-moistened in sterile normal saline, were used to swab the anterior nares, and another used to swab the interdigital spaces of both hands of the participants. The samples were cultured on Mannitol salt agar, Blood agar and MacConkey agar. The plates were incubated at 35°C for 24-48 hrs. The bacterial isolates were identified and antibiotic susceptibility testing carried out on them using CLSI standard.
Out of the 60 samples analysed (30 nasal and hand swabs), 48 (80%) yielded bacterial growth and 12 (20%) showed no bacterial growth. Of the 48 isolates, 46 (95.8%) were identified as Staphylococcus spp and 2 (4.2%) were identified as Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis). Out of the 46 Staphylococcal isolates, 30 (65.2%) were coagulase positive and 16 (34.8%) were coagulase negative. Out of the 30 coagulase positive Staphylococcus spp, 12 (40%) were found to be Methicillin resistant, and one of the Gram negative bacteria isolated (Proteus mirabilis) was extended spectrum beta lactamase producing. Also, of the 48 Staphylococcal isolates, 5 (10.4%) were inducible Clindamycin resistant. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be sensitive to Clindamycin (80%), followed by Ciprofloxacin (77%), Amoxicillin clavulanic acid (73.3%), Oxacillin (60%), Erythromycin (43%), Ceftriaxone (40%) and Trimethoprim Sulphamethoxazole (23.3%). On the other hand, Staphylococcus epidermidis was found to be sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (81%), Clindamycin (70%), Amoxicillin Clavulanic Acid (68.8%), Erythromycin (56.2%), Ceftriaxone (19%) and Trimethoprim Sulphamethoxazole (2.5%). E. coli was 100% sensitive to Ceftriaxone, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin, Ceftazidime and Cefotaxime, and Proteus mirabilis showed 100% sensitivity to Ceftriaxone, Amoxicillin clavulanic acid, Gentamycin and Cefotaxime.
Since hands and anterior nares of health care worker attending to patients could be a source of transmission of nosocomial infection with its attendant consequences in patients care, it will be helpful to screen them regularly as a measure towards the prevention and control of hospital acquired infection.