Cell Therapy in Type 1 DiabetesMaria Concetta Gioviale1, Maurizio Bellavia1, Giuseppe Damiano1 and Giuseppe Buscemi1,2,3
- Corresponding Author:
- Concetta Gioviale, PhD
Transplant Unit - University Hospital, University of Palermo
Department of Surgical and Oncological Disciplines
Via del Vespro 129, 90127 Palermo Italy
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: October 14, 2011; Accepted Date: November 21, 2011; Published Date: December 03, 2011
Citation: Gioviale MC, Bellavia M, Damiano G, Buscemi G (2011) Cell Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes. J Stem Cell Res Ther S2:004. doi:10.4172/2157-7633.S2-004
Copyright: © 2011 Gioviale MC, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The incidence of diabetes mellitus has grown exponentially in the last few years. Etiopathogenesis of diabetes implies a ?-cells damage in the islet of Langerhans, either through an autoimmune reaction present in type 1 diabetic patients or through altered function within these cells that affect their ability to secrete a properly functioning insulin hormone, in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. Exogenous insulin supply is, at the moment, the therapy of choice of the disease but it does not allow tight control of glucose regulation, leading to long-term complications. Over the past few decades, pancreas or pancreas-kidney organ transplantation has been the most effective treatment for severe diabetic patients. Recently, an alternative promising therapeutic approach, consisting of successful pancreatic islet transplantation to reconstitute the insulin producing ? cells, has also emerged. Unfortunately the number of donor islets is too low compared to high number of patients needing a transplant, so the search for new renewable sources of high-quality ?-cells becomes highly topical. In this review, starting from the description of state of art of islet transplantation, we summarize the more recent promising approaches to the generation of new ?-cells giving a big enfacy to adult stem/progenitor cells.