Chalcones: Differential effects on glycogen contents of liver, brain and spinal cord in rats
Chalcones are precursor compounds for flavonoids biosynthesis in plants, and they can also be synthesized in laboratory. Chalcones possess a broad spectrum of biological activities including antioxidative, antibacterial, anthelmintic, amoebicidal, antiulcer, antiviral, insecticidal, antiprotozoal, anticancer, cytotoxic and immunosuppressive. Aldose reductase (AR) enzyme inhibitors have been proposed to prevent or ameliorate long term diabetic complications. Chalcones showed good level of inhibitory activity towards bovine lens aldose reductase (AR) and have been shown the promising compound for the prevention or treatment of diabetic complications. Although a broad range of biological activities of chalcones have been reported, the mode of action of chalcones on glycogen is not yet elucidated. Chalcones were injected intraperitoneally at the dose of 25mg/kg for seven days. On the seventh day, one hour after the last dose rats were killed by cervical decapitation and their liver, brain and spinal cords were dissected out. Our results showed that out the eight tested chalcones, four chalcones significantly inhibited (P>0.001) the liver glycogen. There are no significant effects of chalcones on brain and spinal cord glycogen contents. In conclusion, chalcones exert their antidiabetic effect by decreasing only the liver glycogen content. By comparing the glycogen inhibitory activity structural elements of chalcones responsible for glycogen inhibition could be identified.