alexa Classification of Laser Vaccine Adjuvants
ISSN: 2157-7560

Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination
Open Access

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Short Communication

Classification of Laser Vaccine Adjuvants

Satoshi Kashiwagi*, Timothy Brauns BS and Mark C Poznansky
Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 13th Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts, 02129, United States of America
Corresponding Author : Satoshi Kashiwagi
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center
Division of Infectious Diseases
Department of Medicine
Massachusetts General Hospital
Harvard Medical School
149 13th Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts, 02129
Tel: 617-726-6265
Fax: 617 726 5411
E-mail:
skashiwagi@ mgh.harvard.edu
Received: December 22, 2015; Accepted: February 05, 2016; Published: February 12, 2016
Citation: Kashiwagi S, Timothy Brauns BS, Poznansky MC (2016) Classification of Laser Vaccine Adjuvants. J Vaccines Vaccin 7:307. doi:10.4172/2157-7560.1000307
Copyright: © 2016 Kashiwagi S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Abstract

An immunologic adjuvant, which enhances the magnitude and quality of immune responses to vaccine antigens, has become an essential part of modern vaccine practice. Chemicals and biologicals have been typically used for this purpose, but there are an increasing number of studies that are being conducted on the vaccine adjuvant effect of laser light on the skin. Currently, four different types or classes of laser devices have been shown to systemically enhance immune responses to intradermal vaccination: ultra-short pulsed lasers, non-pulsed lasers, non-ablative fractional lasers and ablative fractional lasers. Aside from involving the application of laser light to the skin in a manner that minimizes discomfort and damage, each type of laser vaccine adjuvant involves emission parameters, modes of action and immunologic adjuvant effects that are quite distinct from each other. This review provides a summary of the four major classes of “laser vaccine adjuvant” and clarifies and resolves their characteristics as immunologic adjuvants. These aspects of each adjuvant’s properties will ultimately help define which laser would be most efficacious in delivering a specific clinical benefit with which specific vaccine.

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