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ISSN: 2157-2518

Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
Open Access

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Review Article

Environmental-stress-induced Chromatin Regulation and its Heritability

Lei Fang1, Kenly Wuptra2,3, Danqi Chen1, Hongjie Li1, Shau-Ku Huang3,4, Chunyuan Jin1* and Kazunari K Yokoyama2*

1Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA

2Center of Environmental Medicine, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Rd, San Ming District, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan

3Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Rd, Zhunan, Miaoli County 350, Taiwan

4Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA

*Corresponding Authors:
Dr. Kazunari K. Yokoyama
Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University
100 Shih-Chuan 1st Rd, San Ming District, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Tel: 886-7312-1101, extn 2729
Fax: 886-7313-3849
E-mail: [email protected]
 
Dr. Chunyuan Jin
Department of Environmental Medicine
NYU School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road
Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA
Tel: 1-845-731-3602
Fax: 1-845-351-5472

Received date: November 26, 2013; Accepted date: January 15, 2014; Published date: January 21, 2014

Citation: Fang L, Wuptra K, Chen D, Li H, Huang SK, et al. (2014) Environmentalstress- induced Chromatin Regulation and its Heritability. J Carcinog Mutagen 5:156. doi: 10.4172/2157-2518.1000156

Copyright: © 2014 Fang L, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Chromatin is subject to proofreading and repair mechanisms during the process of DNA replication, as well as repair to maintain genetic and epigenetic information and genome stability. The dynamic structure of chromatin modulates various nuclear processes, including transcription and replication, by altering the accessibility of the DNA to regulatory factors. Structural changes in chromatin are affected by the chemical modification of histone proteins and DNA, remodeling of nucleosomes, incorporation of variant histones, noncoding RNAs, and nonhistone DNAbinding proteins. Phenotypic diversity and fidelity can be balanced by controlling stochastic switching of chromatin structure and dynamics in response to the environmental disruptors and endogenous stresses. The dynamic chromatin remodeling can, therefore, serve as a sensor, through which environmental and/or metabolic agents can alter gene expression, leading to global cellular changes involving multiple interactive networks. Furthermore its recent evidence also suggests that the epigenetic changes are heritable during the development. This review will discuss the environmental sensing system for chromatin regulation and genetic and epigenetic controls from developmental perspectives.

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