Environmental-stress-induced Chromatin Regulation and its Heritability
- *Corresponding Authors:
- Dr. Kazunari K. Yokoyama
Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University
100 Shih-Chuan 1st Rd, San Ming District, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Tel: 886-7312-1101, extn 2729
E-mail: [email protected]
- Dr. Chunyuan Jin
Department of Environmental Medicine
NYU School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road
Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA
Received date: November 26, 2013; Accepted date: January 15, 2014; Published date: January 21, 2014
Citation: Fang L, Wuptra K, Chen D, Li H, Huang SK, et al. (2014) Environmentalstress- induced Chromatin Regulation and its Heritability. J Carcinog Mutagen 5:156. doi: 10.4172/2157-2518.1000156
Copyright: © 2014 Fang L, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Chromatin is subject to proofreading and repair mechanisms during the process of DNA replication, as well as repair to maintain genetic and epigenetic information and genome stability. The dynamic structure of chromatin modulates various nuclear processes, including transcription and replication, by altering the accessibility of the DNA to regulatory factors. Structural changes in chromatin are affected by the chemical modification of histone proteins and DNA, remodeling of nucleosomes, incorporation of variant histones, noncoding RNAs, and nonhistone DNAbinding proteins. Phenotypic diversity and fidelity can be balanced by controlling stochastic switching of chromatin structure and dynamics in response to the environmental disruptors and endogenous stresses. The dynamic chromatin remodeling can, therefore, serve as a sensor, through which environmental and/or metabolic agents can alter gene expression, leading to global cellular changes involving multiple interactive networks. Furthermore its recent evidence also suggests that the epigenetic changes are heritable during the development. This review will discuss the environmental sensing system for chromatin regulation and genetic and epigenetic controls from developmental perspectives.