Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells Modulate Muscle Regeneration After Cardiotoxin Injury in MiceSilvia Zia1, Mattia Quattrocelli2, Ester Sara Di Filippo3,4, Nikhil Sindhwani1, Francesca Bosisio5,6, Maurilio Sampaolesi2, Jan Deprest1,7* and Jaan Toelen1,7
- Corresponding Author:
- Jan Deprest
Division Woman and Child
University Hospitals Leuven
Tel: 0496 239 992
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: April 27, 2016; Accepted date: May 17, 2016; Published date: May 25, 2016
Citation: Zia S, Quattrocelli M, Filippo ESD, Sindhwani N, Bosisio F, et al. (2016) Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells Modulate Muscle Regeneration After Cardiotoxin Injury in Mice. J Stem Cell Res Ther 6:339. doi:10.4172/2157-7633.1000339
Copyright: © 2016 Zia S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSc) are a very heterogeneous subtype of stem cells with a broad multi potential. They could be used to treat congenital malformations or diseases. Recently, mesoangioblasts, resident pericytes of skeletal muscles, were shown to undergo muscle differentiation in vitro and in vivo. In this study we focused on the identification of an AFS subtype with pericytic characteristics and evaluate its myogenic potential. We identified monoclonal AFSc lines expressing alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and the canonical pericytic markers neural-glial-2 chondroitin sulphate proteglycan (NG2), platelet derived growth factor receptor α and β (PDGFR-α, -β) and α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). These cells were able to integrate into the newly formed myotubes when co-cultured with the C2C12 cells. To test the paracrine effects of these AFSC on muscle regeneration, we assessed their affects in a transwell assay with acutely injured myotubes. AFSc were able to modulate the expression of specific growth factors involved in muscle regeneration, such as Transforming Growth Factor β (Tgfβ), Interferon γ (Ifnγ), Hepatocyte Growth Factor (Hgf) and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2). When AFSc were injected in injured muscles they ameliorated muscle repair as measured by the reduction of centronucleated fibers and fibrosis. Interestingly, the transcriptional program of growth factor response in vitro is observed in large part in the in vivo xenograft experimental model, with the extension of Myostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (Mmp9). Our data suggest that AFSc subtype with pericytic characteristics have the ability to modulate muscle regeneration in vitro and in vivo.