Infection Inflammation and Vitamin D
Yildirim I, Magden K and Hur E*
Bulent Ecevit University Medical School, Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Zonguldak, Turkey
- *Corresponding Author:
- Ender Hur
Bulent Ecevit University Medical School
Division of Nephrology
Department of Internal Medicine
Tel: +90 0372 2612223
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: April 17, 2013; Accepted Date: May 16, 2013; Published Date: May 20, 2013
Citation: Yildirim I, Magden K, Hur E (2013) Infection Inflammation and Vitamin D. Clin Microbial 2:116. doi: 10.4172/2327-5073.1000116
Copyright: © 2013 Yildirim I, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Vitamin D is essential for the organism and it interacts with a lot of systems in mammalians. Vitamin D deficiency is common in the world. Many studies have shown that chronic vitamin D deficiency may have serious adverse consequences such as increased risk of hypertension, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, infections and malignancy, autoimmune diseases. New ones have been added on these adverse consequences nowadays.
Vitamin D has got both stimulatory and antiproliferative effects on the immune system. This paradoxical effects of 1, 25-(OH)2D3 leads to discussions about the relationship between the immune systems and vitamin D. Inflammatory markers can be increased with other reasons in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency may occur due to insufficient intake, hepatic disease, renal disease, loss of vitamin D binding protein etc. Many confounding factors will affect this relationship in both cases.
Despite large-scaled studies found a positive relationship between vitamin D deficiency and some markers of inflammation but on the contrary many studies cannot find this relationship. The aim of this brief review is to discuss whether plasma 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25-(OH) D] level is associated with inflammatory markers in general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease. For this purpose, the old and new data related to the immune systems and vitamin D will be examined.