The Effect of Chronic Alcohol Abuse on the Benzodiazepine Receptor System in Various Areas of the Human Brain
- *Corresponding Author:
- Tamara Shushpanova
Department of Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neurobiology
Mental Health Research Institute
Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
4 Aleutskaya Street, Tomsk 634014, Russia
E-mail: [email protected] / [email protected]
Received February 28, 2016; Accepted April 28, 2016; Published May 05, 2016
Citation: Shush panova TV, Bokhan NA, Lebedeva VF, Solonskii AV, Udut VV (2016) The Effect of Chronic Alcohol Abuse on the Benzodiazepine Receptor System in Various Areas of the Human Brain. J Psychiatry 19: 365 doi:10.4172/2378-5756.1000365
Copyright: © 2016 Shushpanova TV, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objective: Alcohol abuse induces neuroadaptive changes in the functioning of neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Decrease of GABAergic neurotransmission found in alcoholics and persons with a high risk of alcohol dependence. Benzodiazepine receptor (BzDR) is allosterical modulatory site on GABA type A receptor complex (GABAAR), that modulate GABAergic function and may be important in mechanisms regulating the excitability of the brain processes involved in the alcohol addiction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic alcohol abuse on the BzDR in various areas of the human brain.
Materials and Methods: Investigation of BzDR properties were studied in synaptosomal and mitochondrial membrane fractions from different brain areas of alcohol abused patients and non-alcoholic persons by radioreceptor assay with using selective ligands: [3H] flunitrazepam and [3H] PK-11195. Brain samples obtained at autopsy urgent. In total 126 samples of human brain areas were obtained to study radioreceptor binding, including a study group and control group.
Results: Comparative study of kinetic parameters (Kd, Bmax) of [3H] flunitrazepam and [3H] PK-11195 binding with membrane fractions in studding brain samples was showed that affinity of BzDR was decreased and capacity increased in different areas of human brain under influence of alcohol abuse. More alters of synaptic BzDR “central” type (CBR) appeared in prefrontal cortex, mitochondrial BzDR “peripheral” type (PBR) – in n.caudatus and cerebella cortex. These results showed that alcohol addiction induce more expressive alterations in PBR than CBR in the brain structures that agree with maintaining function of glial cells in CNS under influence of different toxic factors.
Conclusion: Chronic exposure to ethanol results in harmful effects on the human brain: causing nonuniform adaptive changes of BzDR in various areas of the brain, which can modulate GABAAR and reduce neuromediation GABA in various areas of the brain which can cause alcohol addiction.
Graphical Abstract: Alcohol abuse induces neuroadaptive alters of benzodiazepine receptor system in various areas of the brain in patients with alcoholism that can modulate GABAAR and mediation of GABA in the brain, which can cause alcohol addiction.