alexa The Role of Uric Acid as an Antioxidant in Selected Neurodegenerative Disease Pathogenesis: A Short Review
ISSN: 2168-975X

Brain Disorders & Therapy
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Review Article

The Role of Uric Acid as an Antioxidant in Selected Neurodegenerative Disease Pathogenesis: A Short Review

Settle T and Hillar Klandorf*
West Virginia University, Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6108, USA
Corresponding Author : Hillar Klandorf
West Virginia University, Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences
Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6108, USA
Tel: 304-293-1897
E-mail: [email protected]
Received April 21, 2014; Accepted May 26, 2014; Published May 30, 2014
Citation: Settle T, Klandorf H (2014) The Role of Uric Acid as an Antioxidant in Neurodegenerative Disease Pathogenesis. Brain Disord Ther 3:129. doi:10.4172/2168-975X.1000129
Copyright: © 2014 Settle T, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Abstract

Uric acid, a potent antioxidant for humans, birds, reptiles, and some primate species, is the end-product of purine degradation that is formed in the xanthine/hypoxanthine reactions catalyzed by xanthine oxidase. Associated with the evolutionary loss of urate oxidase (the enzyme that oxidizes uric acid resulting in the formation of allantoin) and resulting increase in concentrations of uric acid is a prolonged life span. Uric acid is known to scavenge peroxynitrite and other free radicals that can cause an imbalance of oxidants leading to oxidative stress. Uric acid also has a role in protecting DNA from single-strand breaks caused by free radicals in the body leading to a protective effect in neurodegenerative diseases. The brain is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress as it is considered an ‘expensive tissue’ with a particularly high metabolic rate and comparatively increased utilization of oxygen. Brain tissue is also high in unsaturated lipids, which makes it more susceptible to free radical damage. Oxidative stress is thus linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and also ischemic brain injury. In this review, we summarize the function of uric acid in alleviating oxidative damage and providing protection to neural cells during injury and disease.

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