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Case Report Open Access
Loa loa filariasis, endemic in Western and Central Africa, is rarely observed in Italy (about 100 cases reported between 1993 and 2013). Clinical manifestations of loiasis are different between expatriates and natives: asymptomatic infestation and eye involvement are more common in natives, while Calabar swelling, itching and urticaria are mainly seen in expatriates. Although a geographically restricted infection, it is not impossible to face loiasis among immigrants and travellers. Due to the HIV high prevalence in the same areas, also in apparent absence of risk factors or HIV related symptoms, an HIV test should be offered to people coming from these countries to detect unknown infections. We describe a case of symptomatic loiasis in an expatriate man, who was hospitalized for loiasis and discovered to be also HIV-1-positive; in our patient, the diagnosis of HIV infection forced us to start highly-active-antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and antiparasitic treatment simultaneously.