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Review Article Open Access
The Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and satellite image data can provide useful information for detection and management of both human and animal diseases outbreaks. The satellite surveillance can be used for monitoring of several environmental variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed and direction etc that influences the activity of pathogens, vectors and their interactions with human and animal hosts. By statistical analysis of satellite surveillance data the models based on geographic and vegetation of a particular landscape providing conducive environment to pathogens, spatial and temporal factors determining the distribution of disease can be framed. The GIS data analysis may help in several aspects during outbreak such as identification and spread of diseases over time, population groups at risk, patterns of disease outbreaks, facility available to healthcare and program intervention planning and assessment in disease outbreak. The satellite surveillance have been used in study of several water and vector borne diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera, typhoid, leptospirosis, Rift Valley Fever, Foot and mouth disease, bluetongue, West Nile Virus disease, Japanese encephalitis etc. The remote sensing and GIS data analysis is proved as powerful tools for disease surveillance, predicting its outbreaks, and monitoring control programs.