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Volume 4, Issue 5(Suppl)

J Infect Dis Ther

ISSN: 2332-0877 JIDT, an open access journal

Euro Infectious Diseases 2016

September 05-06, 2016

Page 9





Infectious Diseases

September 05-06, 2016 Frankfurt, Germany



Euro-Global Conference on

Immunity, vaccination, antimicrobial treatment and

in vivo

pathogen behavior: From the laboratory to clinical

setting in endemic regions


ccurate targeting of appropriate vaccination and therapeutic strategies must take into consideration the behavior of

pathogens within the host. Animal models have providedmany insights into those host-pathogen relationships that control

bacterial infections. New approaches based on advanced microscopy, individually-traceable molecularly tagged bacterial

populations and mathematical modeling have exploited the robust and tractable

Salmonella enterica

murine infection model

to capture the many variables that underpin the location, spread, division, death and persistence of microorganisms within an

animal. Immunological or genetic manipulations of B and T-cell mediated immunity, signaling pathways, cytokine networks

and phagocyte effector functions modulate host resistance/susceptibility and have provided solid information on which

immunological effectors control and eliminate disease. These models have also enabled us to test different classes of vaccines

and antibiotics and determine which ones are likely to induce the highest level of protection in other animal species and in

humans. The higher incidence of some invasive bacterial infections in patients with genetic immunodeficiencies, individuals

carrying specific immune gene alleles and patients with comorbidities (e.g., malaria, severe anemia, HIV), indicates common

resistance/susceptibility traits between mice and humans. The presence of comorbidities in endemic areas poses serious

challenges to disease prevention by undermining those elements of the innate immune response that are the foundations upon

which vaccines build resistance. There are currently large gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms that control many bacterial

infections in humans and we still do not fully understand of how comorbidities, alone or in combination, impair immunity.

A major challenge ahead is to link risk factors/comorbidities with specific immunological/functional defects that determine

increased susceptibility to infections in endemic areas. This will provide a rational pathway to develop approaches and tools

to restore such defects in individuals with high risk of contracting disease and will inform development and rational use of

vaccines and antimicrobial treatments.


Pietro Mastroeni has received degree in Medicine and Surgery from the University of Messina, Italy. He has then moved to the University of Cambridge, UK and

completed his PhD before becoming a Research Fellow at Imperial College, University of London, UK. He is currently a Reader in Infection and Immunity at the

University of Cambridge. He has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals and serves as an Editorial Board Member.

[email protected]

Pietro Mastroeni

University of Cambridge, UK

Pietro Mastroeni, J Infect Dis Ther 2016, 4:5(Suppl)