Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions due to an impairment in physical, learning, language, or behavior areas. These conditions begin during the developmental period, may impact day-to-day functioning, and usually last throughout a person’s lifetime.Most common disabilities: Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, Prevasive developmental disorders, Fetal alchohol spectrum disorders, Cerebral palsy, Intellectual disability. Developmental disabilities are severe, long-term problems. They may be physical, such as blindness. They may affect mental ability, such as learning disorders. Or the problem can be both physical and mental, such as Down syndrome. The problems are usually life-long, and can affect everyday living. The main causes of developmental disabilities , Genetic or chromosomal abnormalities, Prenatal exposure to substances, Preterm birth. Genetic abnormalities cuase conditions such as down syndrome, Rett syndrome.
Treatments include physical, speech, and occupational therapy. Special education classes and psychological counseling can also help Once a child is diagnosed with a developmental disability, early intervention is critical. Treatments such as socialization exercises and behavioral therapy may be used to reinforce and support positive behavior. In addition, treatments such as speech, physical therapy or occupational therapy can improve a child's verbal, cognitive and social abilities and motor skills. Children with Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, and other IDDs can often benefit from therapeutic speech therapy, occupational therapy, and exercises to improve their gross- and fine-motor skills.
In Israel,Various surveys indicate that between 800,000 and 1 million people in Israel of working age have a disability, defined as a health problem that interferes with their daily activities. Some 5% of the working age population (about 220,000 people) has severe disabilities. The percentages of women and men with disabilities are similar. The most prevalent disability types are physical (17.5%) and mental health (9.2%).
Prevalence of disabilities in a national sample of 3-year-old Israeli children: The prevalence of chronic conditions and illnesses causing disability in Israeli Jewish children aged 2 to 3 years, born in 1980, was studied on the basis of a national sample (n = 9,854). Seventy-six principle medical conditions causing disability were defined. The study showed a total disability rate of 8.9%. Very low birth weight and family problems were considered risk factors for developmental delay or for disability.