Central sleep apnea (CSA) or central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) is a sleep-related disorder in which the effort to breathe is diminished or absent, typically for 10 to 30 seconds either intermittently or in cycles, and is usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation.
Symptoms The most common symptom of central sleep apnea is short periods during sleep when breathing stops. Some people exhibit very shallow breathing instead of actually stopping breathing. You may wake up feeling short of breath.
Treatment Several different treatments aimed at central sleep apnea include positive airway pressure, adaptive servo ventilation (ASV), oxygen, added dead space, carbon dioxide inhalation, and overdrive atrial pacing. Continuous positive airway pressure CPAP improves cardiac function in patients with congestive heart failure and CSB-CSA.Bilevel positive airway pressure Bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) is effective for treating patients with hypercapnic central sleep apnea (associated with hypoventilation).
Statistics More than 18 million adults have sleep apnea. It is very difficult at present to estimate the prevalence of childhood OSA because of widely varying monitoring techniques, but a minimum prevalence of 2 to 3% is likely, with prevalence as high as 10 to 20% in habitually snoring children. OSA occurs in all age groups and both sexes.