Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic tumor arising from the epithelial rests of Malassez, occurring mostly in the mandible and the tumor arises from the epithelium that plays a role in the process of tooth development. A marked geographic variation is apparent in the relative incidences of various odontogenic tumors, particularly ameloblastoma. The case records and surgical biopsy reports of all diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma archived from January 2010 to December 2012 were retrieved from the Outpatient Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh. Histopathology will show cells that have the tendency to move the nucleus away from the basement membrane. This process is referred to as "Reverse Polarization".
While chemotherapy, radiation therapy, curettage and liquid nitrogen have been effective in some cases of ameloblastoma, surgical resection or enucleation remains the most definitive treatment for this condition. In a detailed study of 345 patients, chemotherapy and radiation therapy seemed to be contraindicated for the treatment of ameloblastomas.
The recurrences in these cases seem to stem from the soft tissues, especially the adjacent periosteum. Recurrence has been reported to occur as many as 36 years after treatment. To reduce the likelihood of recurrence within grafted bone, meticulous surgery with attention to the adjacent soft tissues is required. The annual incidence rates per million for ameloblastomas are 1.96, 1.20, 0.18 and 0.44 for black males, black females, white males and white females respectively.