Stenosis means narrowing of an opening, such as a heart valve. Stenosis of the mitral valve limits the forward flow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle. This may cause a back-up of blood and fluid in the lungs. Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients diagnosed with mitral stenosis don't recall ever having the illness.
Causes: Diagnosed with mitral stenosis don’t recall ever having the illness. During rheumatic fever, the valve becomes Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients inflamed. Over time, the leaflets of the inflamed valve stick together and become scarred, rigid and thickened, limiting its ability to open completely. Symptoms: Many of the symptoms of mitral stenosis, such as shortness of breath and fatigue, result from a back-up of blood in the lungs. Other symptoms of mitral stenosis may include quick weight gain; weakness; dizziness; swelling in the ankles, feet and/or abdomen (edema); and/or heart palpitations (irregular heartbeat).
Treatment: A balloon valvotomy is the preferred treatment for mitral valve stenosis. It is a procedure that widens the mitral valve so that blood flows more easily through the heart. A balloon valvotomy is a minimally invasive procedure. A doctor uses a thin flexible tube (catheter) that is inserted through an artery in the groin or arm and threaded into the heart. When the tube reaches the narrowed mitral valve, a balloon device located on the tip of the catheter is quickly inflated. The narrowed or fused mitral valve leaflets are separated and stretched open as the balloon presses against them. This process increases the size of the mitral valve opening and allows more blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle.
Statistics: Review of all relevant case series using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases resulted in the identification of 14 studies. These studies suggest that the apical ballooning syndrome accounts for ∼2.0% of ST-segment elevation infarcts, with most cases described in post-menopausal women. The most common clinical presentations are chest pain and dyspnoea, reported in 67.8 and 17.8% of the patients, respectively. Cardiogenic shock (4.2% of the patients) and ventricular fibrillation (1.5%) were not infrequent. ST-segment elevation was reported in 81.6% of the patients, T wave abnormalities in 64.3%, and Q waves in 31.8%. Cardiac biomarkers were usually mildly elevated, as reported in 86.2% of the patients. Typically, patients had left ventricular (LV) dysfunction on admission, with mean ejection fraction ranging from 20 to 49%. However, over a period of days to weeks, all patients experienced dramatic improvement in LV function. The onset of symptoms was often preceded by emotional (26.8%) or physical stress (37.8%). Norepinephrine concentration was elevated in 74.3% of the patients. Prognosis was generally excellent, with full recovery in most patients. In-hospital mortality was 1.1%. Only 3.5% of the patients experienced a recurrence.