Stuttering is an interruption of the normal flow of speech, which takes on many different patterns. Commonly, it involves either saying a string of repeated sounds or making abnormal pauses during speech. In early childhood, stuttering is sometimes part of normal speech development. In fact, about 5% of all young children go through a brief period of stuttering when they are learning to talk. Stuttering typically is first noticed between the ages of 2 and 5. It usually goes away on its own within a matter of months. In a small number of children (around 1%), stuttering continues and may get worse. Boys are more likely to stutter than girls.
In addition, normal problems with fluency tend to come and go, or happen only at certain times (such as when a child is tired or excited), but true stuttering is present most of the time. Once a child begins to stutter, he or she may feel embarrassed, self-conscious or anxious when asked to speak. The child may find it hard to socialize with friends and also may intentionally avoid situations where talking is expected, such as telephone calls, classroom discussions and school plays. Somewhat unexpectedly, many children who stutter have no problem when they sing. According to some experts, this is because speaking and singing often come from opposite sides of the brain, especially in right-handed people.
Statewide active surveillance for invasive (pneumococcal) disease began in 2002, expanded from the metropolitan area, where active surveillance was ongoing since 1995. In 2013, 542(10.1 per 100,000) cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were reported. By age group, annual incidence rates per 100,000 were 12.6 cases among children aged 0-4 years, 2.2 cases among children and adults aged 5-39 years, 10.4 cases among adults 40-64 years, and 34.9 cases among adults aged 65 years and older.