Epidermoid (ep-ih-DUR-moid) cysts are noncancerous small bumps beneath the skin. Epidermoid cysts can appear anywhere on the skin, but are most common on the face, neck and trunk. Slow growing and often painless, epidermoid cysts rarely cause problems or need treatment. But you may choose to have a cyst removed by a doctor if its appearance bothers you or if it's painful, ruptured or infected. Many people refer to epidermoid cysts as sebaceous cysts, but they're different. True sebaceous cysts are less common.
They arise from the glands that secrete oily matter that lubricates hair and skin Epidermoid cysts are harmless and are almost never linked with cancer. If you're worried that it will grow into something more dangerous, check with your doctor to make sure it's not another type of skin problem. Epidermoid cysts may occur at any age; however, they most commonly arise in the third and fourth decades of life. Small epidermoid cysts known as milia are common in the neonatal period.
Asymptomatic epidermoid cysts do not need any treatment. Intralesional injection with triamcinolone may hasten the resolution of inflammation. Oral antibiotics may occasionally be used. Epidermoid cysts may be removed via simple excision or incision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall though the surgical defect. If the entire cyst wall is not removed, the lesion may recur. Excision with punch biopsy technique may be used if the size of the lesion permits. Minimal-incision surgery, with reduced scarring, has been reported. Incision and drainage may be performed if a cyst is inflamed. Injection of triamcinolone into the tissue surrounding the inflamed cyst results in faster improvement in symptoms.