Pathophysiology:The Leishmaniases are diseases caused by protozoan parasites from more than 20 Leishmania species that are transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease can present in three main ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis The cutaneous form presents with skin ulcers, while the mucocutaneous form presents with ulcers of the skin, mouth, and nose, and the visceral form starts with skin ulcers and then later presents with fever, low red blood cells, and enlarged spleen and liver.
Treatment:The treatment is determined by where the disease is acquired, the species of Leishmania, and the type of infection. For visceral leishmaniasis in India, South America, and the Mediterranean, liposomal amphotericin B is the recommended treatment and is often used as a single dose A number of topical treatments may be used for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Which treatments are effective depends on the strain, with topical paromomycin effective for L. major, L. tropica, L. mexicana, L. panamensis, and L. braziliensis.
Statistics: The urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil has been related to environmental changes, migration, interaction and spread of sylvatic reservoirs and infected dogs to areas with no transmission, and adaptation of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to the peridomiciliary environment. From 1980 to 2005, Brazil recorded 59,129 cases of visceral leishmaniasis, 82.5% of which in the Northeast region. Visceral leishmaniasis gradually spread to other regions of the country: in 1998 these other regions reported 15% of all cases, but by 2005 this proportion had increased to 44%.