Hemangioma originally described any vascular tumor-like structure, whether it was present at or around birth or appeared later in life. Mulliken et al. categorized these conditions into two families: one of self-involuting tumors, growing lesions that eventually disappear, and another of malformations, enlarged or abnormal vessels present at birth and essentially permanent. The importance of this distinction is that it makes it possible for early-in-life differentiation between lesions that will resolve versus those that are permanent.
Signs and symptoms : If they are on the surface of the skin, they are reminiscent of a ripe strawberry (hence, they are sometimes referred to as "strawberry hemangiomas"). If they are just under the skin they present as a bluish swelling. Sometimes they grow in internal organs such as the liver, larynx, or small and large intestines.In most cases, hemangiomas will disappear over time. Some are formed during gestation and are called congenital hemangiomas; the most common (infantile hemangiomas) appear during the first few weeks of life.
Causes : The cause of hemangioma is currently unknown; however, several studies have suggested the importance of estrogen signaling in hemangioma proliferation. In 2007, a paper from the Stanford Children's Surgical Laboratory revealed that localized soft tissue hypoxia coupled with increased circulating estrogen after birth may be the stimulus.
Statistics: During the four years of the study, approximately 1,360,000 babies were born in Canada, including 3528 home births (25,26).The calculated incidence of all types of HDNB in Canada during this period would be 0.45/100,000, whereas the calculated incidence of late HDNB would be 0.37/100,000. This is slightly higher than the rate of 0.25/100,000 reported by von Kries (19) and may be due to the fact that two infants did not receive any vitamin K following birth and another received a single oral dose of the parenteral form of vitamin K.