Trench Fever is an uncommon rickettsial fever caused by Bartonella quintana and transmitted by the louse Pediculus humanus; first appeared as an epidemic during trench warfare in World War I (1914-1918); characterized by the sudden onset of chills and fever, myalgia (especially of the back and legs), headache, and general malaise that typically lasts 5 days but may recur. 3.4 million cases in Canada were reported against Trench Fever.
The term trench fever refers to the crowded conditions in which troops fought in during World War I and World War II. Erythromycin and azithromycin are both used to treat trench fever. Four weeks of treatment are usually necessary. Inadequate treatment often results in a relapse. In fact, relapses have been reported to occur as long as 10 years after the first episode. First, no cure for trench fever was found and the disease continued to be a severe drain on army manpower throughout much of the conflict.