The term heart disease is often interchanged with the term cardiovascular disease. It generally refers to the conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. By controlling high blood pressure, quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy diet and by maintaining low cholesterol levels heart diseases can be prevented.
Diagnosis and symptoms include cardiac catherization, cardiac MRI, picturing the heart, a CT scan, a coronary angiography, stress testing, echocardiography, nuclear heart scan, etc. Treatment for heart valve problems include medications, heart valve surgery and for heart attack medications like clot busters should be administered as soon as possible, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
During the 10-year study period, the proportion of total deaths due to CHD in Tianjin increased significantly (from 16% to 24%) and Sage-standardized CHD mortality increased slightly (with no statistical differences), in contrast to CHD mortality trends in various countries in the Americas and Europe, which are declining. No difference was found in Tianjin's CHD mortality trend by sex.