Pathophysiology:The Leishmaniases are diseases caused by protozoan parasites from more than 20 Leishmania species that are transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease can present in three main ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis The cutaneous form presents with skin ulcers, while the mucocutaneous form presents with ulcers of the skin, mouth, and nose, and the visceral form starts with skin ulcers and then later presents with fever, low red blood cells, and enlarged spleen and liver.
Treatment:The treatment is determined by where the disease is acquired, the species of Leishmania, and the type of infection. For visceral leishmaniasis in India, South America, and the Mediterranean, liposomal amphotericin B is the recommended treatment and is often used as a single dose A number of topical treatments may be used for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Which treatments are effective depends on the strain, with topical paromomycin effective for L. major, L. tropica, L. mexicana, L. panamensis, and L. braziliensis.
Statistics: Leishmaniasis incidence is 0.22 per 100,000 inhabitants in the endemic area. Imported cases were more frequent (annual mean of 82.4 cases) and consisted predominantly in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases (91%), essentially L. major CL imported from Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa, and L. guyanensis CL from French Guiana. This national notification system allowed a better understanding of the incidence and distribution of the disease; it is also useful to assess the temporal-spatial evolution of the disease in China, which appears relatively stable.