Septic Arthritis is also known as infectious arthritis, bacterial, or fungal arthritis. It is the purulent invasion of a joint by an infectious agent which produces arthritis. The condition is an inflammation of a joint that's caused by infection. Typically, septic arthritis affects one large joint in the body, such as the knee or hip. Less frequently, septic arthritis can affect multiple joints. Septic arthritis is considered a medical emergency. If untreated, it may destroy the joint in a period of days. The infection may also spread to other parts of the body.
Pathophysiology: The major consequence of bacterial invasion is damage to articular cartilage. This may be due to the particular organism's pathologic properties, such as the chondrocyte proteases of S aureus, as well as to the host's polymorphonuclear leukocytes response. The cells stimulate synthesis of cytokines and other inflammatory products, resulting in the hydrolysis of essential collagen and proteoglycans. Infection with N gonorrhoeae induces a relatively mild influx of white blood cells (WBCs) into the joint, explaining, in part, the minimal joint destruction observed with infection with this organism relative to destruction associated with S aureus infection.
Statistics: Brucellosis is still a challenging medical problem in China. Due to increasing traffic between rural and urban areas, more cases in urban areas are to be expected. Physicians should consider brucellosis as one of the differential diagnosis of arthritis, irrespective of whether they are in endemic or non-endemic areas. Detailed travel and contact histories of patients are essential in order to establish an early diagnosis. In cases of osteoarticular involvement, early surgical interventions together with antibiotics are recommended to prevent further destruction of the joints.