Trench Fever is a self-limited infection caused by Bartonella, a rickettsial organism transmitted by body lice, characterized by weakness, fever, rash, and leg pains. It was common during World War I but is now rare. Also called 5-day fever, quintana fever. 217,000 women self-reported having Trench fever in China 2007. Diagnosis is by blood culture. Treatment is with a macrolide or doxycycline. Tetracycline-group antibiotics (doxycycline, tetracycline) are commonly used.
Chloramphenicol is an alternative medication recommended under circumstances that render use of tetracycline derivates undesirable, such as severe liver malfunction, kidney deficiency, in children under nine years and in pregnant women. The drug is administered for seven to ten days. Researchers at Great Ormond Street Hospital have in the past claimed tackling a Trench fever with medicine before it is allowed to run its course, may slow recovery time, because the temperature can help to kill the bacteria causing the illness.