Fermentation technology is a field which involves the use of microorganisms and enzymes for production of compounds which have application in the energy, material, pharmaceutical, chemical and the food industry. Though fermentation processes are used for generations for the requirement for sustainable production of materials and energy is demanding creation and advancement of novel fermentation processes.
Efforts are directed both to the advancement of cell factories and enzymes as well as of design of new processes, concepts and technologies for fermentation process.
Through fermentation, we can produce enzymes for industrial purposes. Process of Fermentation includes the use of microorganisms, like yeast and bacteria for the production of enzymes.
Mainly, there are two methods of fermentation which are used to produce enzymes. First is submerged fermentation and second is solid-state fermentation. In Submerged fermentation, the production of enzymes is done by microorganisms in a liquid nutrient media. Whereas in Solid- fermentation is carried out by cultivation of microorganisms and production of enzyme is done on a solid substrate. Compounds containing carbon in or on the substrate are busted down by the micro organisms thus producing the enzymes either extracellular or intracellular. The enzymes are isolated by various methods such as centrifugation, and for extracellular produced enzymes and lying of cells for intracellular enzymes.
Various industries rely on enzymes for the production of their enzyme dependent products. Industries which are used for enzymes generated by fermentation are the wine making, brewing, cheese making and baking.