Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. It may be benign. If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection. Types: Hematuria is of two types 1. Microscopic hematuria - Small amounts of blood can be seen on light microscopy or urinanalysis. 2. Macroscopic hematuria –Gross hematuria Diagnosis: Sometimes the cause of hematuria can be elucidated solely on the basis of the medical history and urine testing, or urinalysis.
Causes Urinary tract infection with bacteria. The vast majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli, with a smaller percentage due toKlebsiella,pneumonia and Staphylococcus saprophyticus , Nephrolithiasis,stones in the kidney, bladder or ureter ,Trauma. Cancer of the kidney, prostate or bladder Other causes includes: Glomerular bleeding: eg: IgA nephropathy ("Berger's disease"), Alport syndrome, thin basement membrane disease ,Sickle cell disease.
Statistics An unselected population of 8,954 children, age 8 to 15 years, was screened for hematuria. Four urine specimens from each were examined; microscopic hematuria was found in one or more specimens in 4.1%, and in two or more specimens in 1.1% of the children. The prevalence was not age or sex dependent. Those with two or more positive samples were re-examined twice during a half-year period: 33 had hematuria of 6 or more RBC/0.9 mm3, or more than 100,000 RBC/hour, on both occasions.