Essential thrombocythemia is a chronic disease common in people over age 50 and slightly more common in women. Young people can develop it as well. It is characterised by the overproduction of platelets by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. Essential thrombocythemia is an uncommon disorder where the body produces too many blood platelets. This condition may cause to feel fatigued, lightheaded and to experience headaches and vision changes. It also increases the risk of blood clots.
The greatest health risk in patients with ET is an increased risk of developing blood clots. Blood clots can be in the deep vessels of the legs or lungs; ET patients are also more likely to experience strokes and heart attacks. ET patients can develop clots elsewhere, including within the abdomen, an otherwise rare site for clots to form. The risk of clotting increases with age, and disease-associated risks may be quite different for children than for adults, with children generally being at low risk for clots and other problems related to ET.
Mutational frequencies were 46.3%, 28.3%, and 1.5% for JAK2V617F, CALR and MPL mutations. Anagrelide yielded a high rate of hematologic responses, which were complete in 49.25% and partial in 46.25%, without differences among molecular subsets. The rate of thrombosis during treatment was one per 100 patient-years, without excess bleeding. Anemia was the major adverse event, 30.3% at 5-yr follow-up, being more frequent in CALR + (P < 0.05). Myelofibrotic transformation developed in 14.9% (12.9%, 21%, and 12.5% inJAK2V617F+, CALR + , and triple-negative patients, respectively, P = NS) and those treated >60 months were at higher risk, OR (95% CI) 9.32 (1.1–78.5), P < 0.01, indicating the need for bone marrow monitoring during prolonged treatment.