Intracranial venous malformations are abnormally enlarged veins in brain. Venous malformations are a type of blood vessel abnormality in the brain or spinal cord.
Most patients who present symptomatically do so at 40-60 years of age. Most patients have single lesions. Multiple lesions may be familial and screening of family members may be indicated (see familial multiple cavernous malformation syndrome). Additionally, they are commonly seen after therapeutic irradiation of the brain, along with capillary telangiectasiasThe majority of lesions remain asymptomatic throughout life and are found incidentally. Presentation due to haemorrhage is with a seizure or focal neurological deficit. The risk of haemorrhage is 1% per year for familial cases and somewhat less for sporadic lesions.
The most important goal AVM treatment is to prevent internal bleeding from rupture, because which can lead to stroke / death. However, seizure control or stabilization of progressive neurological deficits are occasionally treatment goals. Though medication may be prescribed, it does not cure AVMs but medications are used to control pain and seizures. The management options for brain AVMs include observation or various treatment techniques, such as endovascular embolization, microsurgical techniques and stereotactic radiotherapy used alone or in combination with varying degrees of treatment-associated morbidity and mortality.