Gene cloning is making of multiple copies of a single gene, by which we can make a pure copy of individual gene. These cloning have been used in many sectors of biomedical and industrial research. Alteration of the gene sequence for the production or change of protein product or cloning of genes into new organism is the main domain process of genetic engineering.
The process which mainly carry outs few fundamental steps of identification and isolation of desired gene followed into insertion of gene into the vector, later injection of this vector into suitable organism where it multiplies and produce identical copies which are called recombinant DNA molecules. These cloning are done on PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) by using many enzymes like DNA ligase. Most commonly used vector for cloning are plasmids from virus or higher organism and bacteria are one most commonly used as a host for multiplication of genes which shows the unique nature in the Gene cloning. These gene cloning are mainly used in the production of vaccines, insulin, agriculture and research the role of gene activity to cure diseases.