Intellectual disability (ID), also called intellectual development disorder (IDD) or general learning disability, and formerly known as mental retardation (MR) is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning. It is defined by an IQ score below 70 in addition to deficits in two or more behaviors that affect every day, general living.
Pathophysiology: Sometimes disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons eg. Down syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, Fragile X syndrome (common among boys), neurofibromatosis, congenital hypothyroidism. Intellectual disability can result when the fetus does not develop properly.
Diagnosis: The three criteria must be met for a diagnosis of intellectual disability: deficits in general mental abilities, significant limitations in one or more areas of adaptive behavior across multiple environments and evidence that the limitations became apparent in childhood or adolescence. In general, people with intellectual disability have an IQ below 70, but clinical discretion may be necessary for individuals who have a somewhat higher IQ but severe impairment in adaptive functioning.
Germany is a country with an approximate area of 43 thousand square kilometers (UNO, 2008). The population is 5,481,283 and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 98 (UNO, 2009). The proportion of the population under the age of 18 years is 22% and the proportion above age 60 is 17% (UNO, 2009). The life expectancy at birth is 76 years for males and 81 years for females (UNO, 2005-2010).