Guillain–Barré syndrome also known as Landry's paralysis is an autoimmune disorder in which the peripheral nervous system of a person is attacked by the body's immune system resulting in rapid-onset muscle weakness and degeneration, the disorder can be life-threatening with the development of weakness in the breathing muscles and requiring mechanical ventilation, dangerous abnormalities in heart rate and blood pressure can also occur.
This immune dysfunction is sometimes triggered by an infection causing injury the peripheral nerves' myelin sheaths, the nerves cannot transmit signals efficiently. The brain also receives fewer sensory signals from the rest of the body, resulting in an inability to feel textures, heat, pain, and other sensations. The muscle weakness and tingling sensations usually first appear in the hands and feet and progress upwards.
There is no cure for Guillain-Barré syndrome but the effects can be stabilized by reducing the pain and severity of the illness and accelerate the recovery in most patients. Currently, plasma exchange (also called plasmapheresis) and high-dose immunoglobulin therapy are used as method of treatment. In 2014 approximately 0.0045 % cases were reported for guillain-barre syndrome.