alexa Hormones | Journal of Steroids and Hormonal Science

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Hormones are chemicals that are released by a cell, an organ, or a gland in one part of the body that affects cells in other parts of the living organism. Generally, cell metabolism is altered by a small amount of hormone. In essence, it is a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to the other. All multicellular organisms produce hormones; plant hormones are also called phytohormones. Blood is the source of transportation for hormones in animals. Response of a cell towards a particular hormone can be seen when they express a specific receptor for that hormone. The activation of a signal transduction mechanism can be seen when hormone binds to receptor protein and ultimately leads to cell type specific responses. Hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream. Hormone cells are typically of a specialized cell type, residing within a particular endocrine gland, such as thyroid gland, ovaries, and testes. Hormones exit the cell in which they originated by means of exocytosis or another means of membrane transport mechanism. Different tissue types may also respond differently to the same hormonal signal. Effects of hormones include inhibition of growth stimulation, induction or suppression of apoptosis, regulation of metabolism, control of the reproductive cycle, hunger cravings, sexual arousal etc. A hormone may also regulate the production and release of other hormones. Internal environment of the body is controlled by hormones through a mechanism called homeostasis.

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