Amenorrhoea often caused by hormonal disturbances from the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, from premature menopause or intrauterine scar formation. It is defined as the absence of menses for three months in a woman with previously normal menstruation or nine months for women with a history of oligomenorrhoea. Disease statistics The cause of elevated levels can sometimes be determined by measuring serum LH. In polycystic ovary syndrome, circulating LH levels are often increased, increasing the ratio of LH to FSH.
Clinicians should note vital signs and body composition and build, including height and weight, and should calculate body mass index (BMI). Secondary sexual characteristics are evaluated; breast and pubic hair development are staged using Tanner’s method. If axillary and pubic hair is present, adrenarche has occurred. With the patient seated, clinicians should check for breast secretion by applying pressure to all sections of the breast, beginning at the base and moving toward the nipple. Disease Treatment Treatments vary based on the underlying condition. Key issues are problems of surgical correction if appropriate and oestrogen therapy if oestrogen levels are low. For those who do not plan to have biological children, treatment may be unnecessary if the underlying cause of the amenorrhoea is not threatening to their health.
In preindustrial societies, menarche typically occurred later than in current industrial societies. After menarche, menstruation was suppressed during much of a woman's reproductive life by either pregnancy or nursing. Reductions in age of menarche and lower fertility rates mean that modern women menstruate far more often than they did under the conditions prevalent for most of human evolutionary history.