Clostridium difficile Infection pathophysiology
Clostridium difficile is a species of gram positive bacteria and belong to the genus Clostridium. Diarrhea is the most common symptom of C. diff infection. It can also cause fever, belly pain, loss of appetite and nausea. Sometimes this infection is very mild and sometimes it is very serious lading to death also. When people is suffering from very bad diarrhea from C. diff infection, then they cannot have sufficient fluid in their bodies which may leads to hurt or kill the kidneys. These bacteria can also eat a hole in the intestines, which is very dangerous. Generally people who are taking antibiotic medicine having more chances to get this infection and along with this older people who are 65 years old, people having weak immune system, people who had surgery, people with colon problems like colon cancers are affecting more from this infection. To prevent C. diff infection hand washing is the best way. C. diff bacteria on surfaces can be killed by bleach.
Clostridium difficile Infection Statistics
An early report found 21/93 AAD cases were positive for C. difficile by culture and toxin assay in Nehru Hospital in 1983–1984. In Calcutta, C. difficile was isolated in 38/341 hospitalised patients with acute diarrhoea over 1 year. A hospital in Delhi reported CDI in 26/156 diarrhoeal hospitalised patients, detected by culture and toxin A EIA. Infection control measures subsequently introduced at this hospital apparently reduced incidence of CDI by more than 50% over 5 years. The most recent report found a prevalence of non-toxigenic C. difficile of 12.6% among 79 hospitalised patients, five of whom subsequently developed diarrhoea with positive culture and toxin assay. The study group also detected widespread contamination of surfaces on beds (51%) and hands of hospital workers (62.5%).
Clostridium difficile Infection Treatment
For treatment of Clostridium difficile infection antibiotic medicines are very useful. An antibiotic called metronidazole as the first treatment for C. diff infection. About three in every four people with C. diff infection get better after taking metronidazole for ten days. When fiction is not getting cured with antibiotics, surgery is the next step to remove parts of the colon. Alternative therapies for cases of mild C difficile infection include bacitracin, teicoplanin, or a binding resin such as cholestyramine or colestipol. Oral vancomycin is recommended for initial severe episodes, or first or second recurrence. Saccharomyces boulardii is the only probiotic which is useful in CDI. Fecal transplants have been used successfully in some patients, but randomized studies are needed.
Clostridium difficile Infection ongoing research
Some of the ongoing research studies on Overdiagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infection in the Molecular Test Era, Surveillance for antimicrobial resistance in Australian isolates of Clostridium difficile, 2013-14, Clinical and Epidemiologic Considerations of Clostridium Difficile in Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina) at a Marine Mammal Rehabilitation Center, Contamination of the Hospital Environment From Potential Clostridium difficile Excretors Without Active Infection, Pan-European longitudinal surveillance of antibiotic resistance among prevalent Clostridium difficile ribotypes.