Intracranial venous malformations are abnormally enlarged veins in brain. Venous malformations are a type of blood vessel abnormality in the brain or spinal cord.
An arterio-venous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal fistulous connection between the feeding arteries and draining veins, without an intervening capillary bed within the subcutaneous layer. Its management is difficult because of its complex vascular anatomy, high-shunt flow (in high-flow AVM), intracranial connection (when present) and possible cosmetic complications. They are relatively rare vascular lesions present as an subcutaneous scalp lump or a large, pulsatile mass with a propensity to skin erosion and massive haemorrhage. Several treatment options that have been described to treat these lesions, including surgical excision, ligation of feeding vessels, transarterial and transvenous embolization injection of sclerosant into the nidus and electro thrombosis. Here, we have described our experiences of surgical management of scalp VM (SVM) and result along with a short literature review.
The most important goal AVM treatment is to prevent internal bleeding from rupture, because which can lead to stroke / death. However, seizure control or stabilization of progressive neurological deficits are occasionally treatment goals. Though medication may be prescribed, it does not cure AVMs but medications are used to control pain and seizures. The management options for brain AVMs include observation or various treatment techniques, such as endovascular embolization, microsurgical techniques and stereotactic radiotherapy used alone or in combination with varying degrees of treatment-associated morbidity and mortality.