Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The causes of type 2 diabetes are multi-factorial and include both genetic and environmental elements that affect beta-cell function and tissue (muscle, liver, adipose tissue, pancreas) insulin sensitivity. Although there is considerable debate as to the relative contributions of beta-cell dysfunction and reduced insulin sensitivity to the pathogenesis of diabetes, it is generally agreed that both these factors play important roles.
Treatments for type 2 diabetes focus on: controlling blood sugar, achieving a healthy weight, improving activity levels. Both lifestyle changes and medical treatments can help to control the disease. Monitoring blood sugar is an essential part of diabetes treatment. People with diabetes need to monitor and record their blood sugar on a regular basis. Monitoring frequency varies.Type 2 Diabetes afflicts close to 250 million people in world today.
It is estimated that there are over 15,600 people over 80 years of age living with Type 2 diabetes based on the TILDA study which showed a prevalence of 11.9% in the over 75 age group. The International Diabetes Federation’s (2012) estimates that by 2030 there will be 278,850 people with the condition ( prevalence of 7.5% in the population).