Diagnosis & Treatment
They may have ulcers of the mouth and tongue, fever, or a sore throat. There may be history of infection because of a low number of white blood cells. There may also be evidence of bleeding in the eye. If anemia is severe, a heart murmur may be detected. With Fanconi anemia, conditions such as skeletal anomalies, skin discoloration, mental retardation, or learning disabilities may be detected, but often are not present. Abnormal cells are not found. Additional tests may be performed to identify the cause of the aplastic anemia. These tests may include serological tests to check for infection. If Fanconi anemia is suspected, a peripheral chromosome analysis may be performed.
Incidence and Prevalence
Although there is no accurate prospective data on the national incidence of aplastic anemia, several studies based on reviews of death registries suggest that the US incidence ranges from 0.6 to 6.1 cases per million population; in Europe and Israel, the incidence is 2 individuals per million, and in some parts of Asia, the incidence is 4 individuals per million. It is believed that the increased incidence of aplastic anemia in Asia is due to exposure to toxic substances, rather than genetic factors.