Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in extra genetic material from chromosome 21. Down syndrome is a set of physical and mental traits caused by a gene problem that happens before birth. This genetic disorder, which varies in severity, causes lifelong intellectual disability and developmental delays.
Children with Down syndrome have a distinct facial appearance. Infants with Down syndrome may be average size, but typically they grow slowly and remain shorter than other children the same age. Some of the more common features are flattened facial features, small head, short neck, protruding tongue upward slanting eyes, poor muscle tone, broad & short hands with a single crease in the palm, relatively short fingers and small hands and feet, tiny white spots on the colored part (iris) of the eye called Brushfield spots.
Early intervention for infants and children with Down syndrome can make a major difference in realizing their potential abilities and in their quality of life. Treatment for Down syndrome focuses on making sure that your child has regular medical checkups, helping your child develop, watching for early signs of health problems, and finding support. Down syndrome is a lifelong condition. But with care and support, children who have Down syndrome can grow up to have healthy, happy, productive lives.