Intracranial venous malformations are abnormally enlarged veins in brain. Venous malformations are a type of blood vessel abnormality in the brain or spinal cord.
AVMs can form virtually anywhere in the brain or spinal cord—wherever arteries and veins exist. Some are formed from blood vessels located in the dura mater or in the pia mater, the outermost and innermost, respectively, of the three membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. (The third membrane, called the arachnoid, lacks blood vessels.) AVMs of the dura mater affect the function of the spinal cord by transmitting excess pressure to the venous system of the spinal cord. AVMs of the spinal cord affect the function of the spinal cord by hemorrhage, by reducing blood flow to the spinal cord, or by causing excess venous pressure. Spinal AVMs frequently cause attacks of sudden, severe back pain, often concentrated at the roots of nerve fibers where they exit the vertebrae, with pain that is similar to that caused by a slipped disk.
The most important goal AVM treatment is to prevent internal bleeding from rupture, because which can lead to stroke / death. However, seizure control or stabilization of progressive neurological deficits are occasionally treatment goals. Though medication may be prescribed, it does not cure AVMs but medications are used to control pain and seizures. The management options for brain AVMs include observation or various treatment techniques, such as endovascular embolization, microsurgical techniques and stereotactic radiotherapy used alone or in combination with varying degrees of treatment-associated morbidity and mortality.