In all, 78 LCPD patients, 86% males, 51% with severe bone disease, were studied. Family history was negative for Gaucher disease. Ethnic origin was 39% Ashkenazi Jewish, 6% Arab, and 55% other ethnicities. One Ashkenazi Jewish LCPD patient was homozygous for the 1226G mutation, and 4 LCPD patients were carriers: 3 Ashkenazi Jewish and 1 Arab patient. The frequency of the 1226G mutation among the LCPD patients was increased relative to historical Ashkenazi Jewish Israeli controls (P = 0.01).