Trench Fever is a self-limited infection caused by Bartonella, a rickettsial organism transmitted by body lice, characterized by weakness, fever, rash, and leg pains. It was common during World War I but is now rare. Also called 5-day fever, quintana fever. 88,000 men self-reported having Trench fever in Israel 2011. Chloramphenicol is an alternative medication recommended under circumstances that render use of tetracycline derivates undesirable, such as severe liver malfunction, kidney deficiency, in children under nine years and in pregnant women. The drug is administered for seven to ten days.
Initial management of severe Bartonella infections, including trench fever and urban trench fever, may require inpatient management. Generally, the consolidation phase of treatment can be provided on an outpatient basis. The NICE (National Institute of Clinical Excellence) advice to doctors on Treatment of Trench Fever in individuals, from a few years ago, states that studies have shown that giving Calpol or other fever lowering drugs will NOT reduce the risk of febrile convulsion. Fever is NOT the disease but is your body fighting the disease, so if you lower the fever you make it harder for the body to fight the bacteria/virus and more likely to get serious complications from the germ.