Tuberculosis is a disease caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis which usually attack the lungs, but can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain.
Of all the 6579 PLWHA reported between 1983 and 2010, corresponding to 55737 person-years, 384 (5.8%) developed tuberculosis. Of those, 14 were Israeli-born and 370 were non-Israeli born. The overall tuberculosis incidence-density was 6.9 cases/1000 person-years (95% CI 1.8?12.0).
Tuberculosis prevention and control efforts primarily rely on the vaccination of infants and the detection and appropriate treatment of active cases. The only available vaccine as of 2011 is Bacillus Calmette-Gu?rin (BCG)
The BCG vaccine has limitations, and research to develop new TB vaccines is ongoing. A number of potential candidates are currently in phase I and II clinical trials.